Notas sobre Energías Renovables

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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 18 Ago 2018 4:45 am

La “cometa” de energía subacuática completa con éxito las pruebas

Una tecnología única para generar energía renovable, llamada Deep Green, está un paso más cerca del mercado. La “cometa” de energía subacuática, capaz de generar energía sostenible de las mareas y corrientes oceánicas, terminó recientemente con éxito una serie de pruebas.

Imagen

17-08-2018 10:28 | Por: Hidde Middelweerd

La compañía sueca Minesto, a cargo del desarrollo de Deep Green, probó la tecnología en la costa de Gales. La conclusión es que la cometa de energía está lista para usar.

Energía sostenible
La cometa de energía subacuática consiste en una turbina con alas encima, anclada al fondo del mar con un cable. La corriente de marea asegura que la cometa se mueva realmente formando un 8. Debido al movimiento a través del océano, el agua fluye mucho más rápido a través de la turbina. Como resultado, la potencia de la cometa es cientos de veces mayor que la de una variante estacionaria, dice Minesto. La cometa de energía tiene una capacidad de 0.5 megavatios.

El video abajo tiene más información:

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbHDrgK7Wus



Corriente de marea
Minesto afirma que la energía de las mareas tiene una ventaja importante sobre la energía solar y eólica: Los flujos de marea pueden predecirse casi con 100 por ciento de precisión. Esto permite calcular exactamente cuánta energía generará una cometa.
Otra ventaja importante de la tecnología Deep Green es que produce rentablemente electricidad en puntos donde el flujo tiene una velocidad entre 1,2 y 2,4 metros por segundo, a profundidades entre 60 y 120 metros. Según Minesto, la cometa de energía es actualmente la única tecnología que puede generar electricidad a ese velocidad y profundidad.

Tocardo
La energía mareomotriz también se usa en los Países Bajos para generar energía renovable. Tocardo, el desarrollador holandés de turbinas de corrientes de marea, ha instalado turbinas en Zeeland y en Afsluitdijk. Pero las turbinas de Tocardo también se pueden encontrar en la costa británica.

https://www.duurzaambedrijfsleven.nl/energie/29733/onderwater-energievlieger-sluit-tests-succesvol-af
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 27 Ago 2018 5:19 am

Scotland’s floating turbine smashes tidal renewable energy records
Leads to calls for 'wholly renewable electricity system' from environment group
Agency, 23-08-2018

Imagen
The SR2000 turbine, at front, generated more energy than Scotland's current tidal power instrastructure ( Scotrenewables Tidal Power )

A floating tidal stream turbine off the coast of Orkney has produced more green energy in a year than Scotland’s entire wave and tidal sector produced in the 12 years before it came online.

In 12 months of full-time operation, the SR2000 turbine supplied the equivalent annual power demand of about 830 households.

Its developer claimed the machine – the most powerful of its kind in the world – had set a benchmark for its industry due to its performance.

It produced 3GWh of renewable electricity during its first year of testing at the European Marine Energy Centre.

Over the 12 years before its launch in 2016, wave and tidal energies across Scotland had collectively produced 2.983GWh, according to Ofgem.

Andrew Scott, chief executive officer of developers Scotrenewables Tidal Power, said: “The SR2000’s phenomenal performance has set a new benchmark for the tidal industry.

“Its first year of testing has delivered a performance level approaching that of widely deployed mature renewable technologies.”

He added: “The ability to easily access the SR2000 for routine maintenance has been a significant factor in our ability to generate electricity at such levels over the past 12 months, including over winter.”

The team at Scotrenewables said their success – combined with Meygen’s generation of more than 8GWh over the past year from four tidal turbines deployed in the Pentland Firth – is evidence that tidal power generation could be rolled out more widely.

Hannah Smith, senior policy manager at trade body Scottish Renewables, said: “This milestone for the tidal energy industry truly demonstrates the untapped potential of this emerging sector.

“Scotland’s remarkable marine energy resource has placed us front and centre in developing this industry with global potential.

“To keep driving progress it’s critical that both Scottish and UK governments recognise the potential of these technologies and work with industry to fully commercialise these innovations.”

Gina Hanrahan, acting head of policy at WWF Scotland, added: “As we transition to a wholly renewable electricity system, it’s really important that we have a diversity of renewable electricity sources.

“We’ve seen huge growth in onshore wind and offshore wind over recent years, and it’s great to see new tidal technologies now hitting new milestones.”

https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/scotland-floating-turbine-tidal-power-record-sr2000-scotrenewables-ofgem-a8503221.html
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 11 Sep 2018 6:26 am

Bacterias de pozo petrolero petróleo crearán energía renovable
Lunes, 27 de agosto de 2018
Fuente: Hyperthermics


Imagen
Hans Kristian Kotlar participó en la recolección de muestras bacterianas de yacimientos petrolíferos de todo el mundo. En el laboratorio, se identificaron los tipos más prometedores: ahora la colección se usa para crear energía renovable. (Foto: Equinor)

La nueva tecnología del medio ambiente en la Conferencia de la ONS (“Offshore Northern Seas”): Los microorganismos involucrados en el desarrollo de aceite de dinosaurios y plantas de hace millones de años, han conseguido algo nuevo para digerir. Ahora comerán residuos orgánicos y los convertirán en energía verde en vez de petróleo.

En un nuevo acuerdo, Equinor (NB! Nuevo nombre de Statoil) concede a Hyperthermics acceso a bacterias únicas extraídas de los yacimientos de petróleo y áreas relacionadas. Los microorganismos vivos, involucrados en la formación de petróleo hace unos 200 millones de años, se van a utilizar en una nueva tecnología – que convierte residuos convencionales en energía verde.

Innovasjon Norge (“Innovación de Noruega”) ha elegido Hyperthermics como una de las once empresas noruegas más prometedores enfocadas en energía verde, y presentará la nueva tecnología revolucionaria para los actores internacionales de la industria, como parte de la "Next Energy by Innovation Norway" en la conferencia ONS en Stavanger el 27 de agosto a las 17:00.

Durante años Equinor recogió miles de diferentes microorganismos en sus campos petroleros por todo el mundo. La colección única de bacterias ha sido parte de un importante proyecto de investigación para aumentar la recuperación de petróleo. Ahora, la empresa Hyperthermics puede usar las muestras recolectadas para producir biogás limpio a partir de los desechos.

En busca de la combinación perfecta
"El acuerdo con Equinor nos da acceso a una gran y variada colección de organismos vivos. Por lo tanto, se hace más fácil para nosotros encontrar la combinación óptima de bacterias para convertir varios tipos de biomasa en energía renovable, dice Harald Nordal, CEO de hipertermia. 
Proceso más rápido y productivo
La compañía noruega Hyperthermics es la primera en el mundo que utiliza organismos vivos que toleran altas temperaturas, para producir energía renovable en forma de biogás. Con temperaturas más altas, el proceso es mucho más rápido, solo horas en lugar de días, y produce mucho más biogás que las plantas tradicionales.

- Los microorganismos, especialmente de los fondos marinos y reservas de petróleo, son un área poco investigada. En una de las llamadas tuberías submarinas se estima que hay tantos organismos como en la selva. Está claro que aquí puede haber muchos descubrimientos interesantes. Que ahora tengamos acceso a material que Equinor ha extraído desde su pozos petroleros a muchos kilómetros de profundidad en la corteza terrestre, es una contribución muy importante para la producción de energía verde, dice Nordal. El acceso a las colecciones bacterianas de Equinor puede contribuir sustantivamente con la reducción de costos de producción en la conversión de desechos biológicos en energía limpia.

Energía verde con tecnología petrolera
"Es emocionante que nuestro material de investigación se pueda aplicar a nuevos métodos para crear energía renovable a través de Hyperthermics. Es un buen ejemplo de que la tecnología desarrollada en la industria del petróleo se aplicará en áreas nuevas - y Equinor desea buena suerte en su tarea a las bacterias de pozos de petróleo y otro tipo de microorganismos que degradan el petróleo, dice Henriette Undrum, vicepresidente de Investigación y Tecnología en Equinor.

Hans Kristian Kotlar, ex asesor de alto nivel en Equinor y miembro del consejo científico de Hyperthermics, fue el responsable de la tecnología microbiana de recuperación mejorada de petróleo (MEOR) que ahora se va a utilizar para la producción de biogás.

"Durante mi tiempo en Equinor, recolectamos muestras interesantes de todo el mundo, incluidos pozos petroleros. De vuelta en el laboratorio identificamos los tipos más prometedores. A través de este acuerdo con Equinor, Hyperthermics tiene una fantástica oportunidad de utilizar este conocimiento y muestras de bacterias para convertir la biomasa en energía renovable, dice Kotlar.

http://energiteknikk.net/2018/08/oljebronn-bakterier-skal-lage-fornybar-energi
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 22 Sep 2018 6:17 am

Batería de Alta Capacidad estabiliza la red eléctrica en Sajonia
Erneuerbare energie, 09/17/2018

En Langenreichenbach, en el Norte de Sajonia, entró en operación una nueva central de baterías, que estabilizará la red de distribución del operador local. Además de la sincronización electrónica de potencia, también emplea celdas de batería con tecnología de plomo-carbono. Se está implementando más de estos proyectos.

Imagen
La batería se aloja en 18 contenedores grandes de acero. Además, hay nueve inversores grandes de batería grandes y dos controladores de ahorro de combustible. SMA

El grupo Upside, consultor de Energía fotovoltaica y baterías con sede en Dülmen, ha comenzado a construir una cartera de plantas almacenamiento de energía para estabilizar la red eléctrica. La primera planta importante ha empezado a operar al norte de Sajonia, en Langenreichenbach, a pocos kilómetros al suroeste de Torgau. La planta proporciona 16 megavatios. Las 10,500 celdas de almacenamiento pueden guardar 25 MWh. Están alojadas en 18 enormes contenedores en los terrenos de la subestación en Langenreichenbach.

Desde ahí, deberían controlar la energía de la red de distribución de Mitnetz. La planta de almacenamiento contribuye de este modo, no sólo a la descarga de la red en la región, sino también a estabilizar la red eléctrica de Europa Central. Debido a que la planta dispone de más de nueve inversores de la marca Sunny Central Storage para alimentar a la red cuando las plantas solares y eólicas producen insuficiente energía. Cuando las generadores suministran demasiada electricidad, la planta almacenará la energía que no se consume.

Resultado de pruebas extensas
El control de la planta está dado por dos controladores de ahorro de combustible SMA. Los dispositivos en realidad forman una red de plantas independientes, que consisten en plantas de energía solar y petróleo. Pero también pueden dirigir los sistemas conectados en la zona, para que puedan alimentar coordinadamente a la red. "La electrónica de potencia se encarga permanente la carga y descarga de las baterías a las necesidades de la red ", dijo Enrique Garralaga Rojas, director de desarrollo de proyectos en SMA Sunbelt. "La planta junto a la subestación y la conexión prácticamente en el centro de la red de distribución de Mitnetz permite, además de controlar el suministro de potencia, la provisión de energía a otra red como apoyo", añade Marc Reimer, director general de Upside Invest.
Toda el sistema es resultado de pruebas de batería que el grupo Upside ha venido ejecutando durante cuatro años. Sobre la base de estas mediciones y las simulaciones, la ciudad de Dülmen no sólo han elegido el sistema de control de potencia de SMA, sino también las celdas de baterías de ácido-plomo de Narada Power, un fabricante de Hangzhou, al sureste de China. Esta tecnología tiene una ventaja decisiva sobre la batería de litio: tiene una capacidad de descarga muy alta. También se puede cargar con rapidez. Esto les permite ejecutar con rapidez el suministro de energía a la red cuando se necesita, y el almacenamiento cuando hay energía en exceso.

Estable en operación de carga parcial
Además, la batería de ácido-plomo, igual que la batería de litio, es adecuada para su uso en descargas parciales permanentes y cargas parciales, la llamada operación de estado parcial de carga (PSOC). Como resultado, alcanzan el mismo número de ciclos que las baterías de iones de litio y, por lo tanto, tienen una vida útil más larga en comparación con las baterías de ácido- plomo convencionales. Sin embargo, tienen, como toda batería de plomo, un mayor peso y necesitan más espacio que las baterías de litio, pero son más baratas. Para maximizar la vida útil de la batería, un sistema de monitoreo de SMA Sunbelt controlará toda la batería hasta el nivel de celdas. De esta manera, el envejecimiento y los defectos en las células se pueden detectar antes que ocurran.

Los tres socios han implementado todo el proyecto y planean operar la planta de en el futuro. La compañía creada para el proyecto instalará tres más de estos sistemas. El siguiente proyecto idéntico se implementará cerca de Leipzig, a pocos kilómetros al suroeste de la primera planta. La puesta en marcha de esta segunda planta de almacenamiento está prevista para este año. (Sven Ullrich)

https://www.erneuerbareenergien.de/grossspeicher-stabilisiert-verteilnetz-in-sachsen/150/436/109536/
Última edición por Fermat el 03 Nov 2018 5:32 am, editado 1 vez en total.
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 29 Sep 2018 3:32 am

Alemania: Inauguración del primer tren a hidrógeno del mundo
Infodurable, 21/09/2018

Imagen

El primer tren a hidrógeno entró en operaciones se lanzó el 17 de septiembre en Baja Sajonia. Desarrollado por la compañía francesa Alstom, el dispositivo no emite ningún contaminante y tiene una autonomía de aproximadamente 1000 kilómetros.

Alstom, el industrial francés especializado en transporte, ha diseñado el primer tren propulsado por hidrógeno del mundo, informa Franceinfo. Llamado "Coradia iLint", esta tecnología efectuó su primera prueba el 17 de septiembre en Baja Sajonia. Dos trenes están actualmente en servicio y otros 14 se pondrán en operación en la región alemana para 2021.

Coradia iLint funciona con por celdas de combustible, que producen electricidad a partir del hidrógeno almacenado en tanques en el techo de la unidad y el oxígeno ambiental. Un solo tanque permite un recorrido de cerca de 1000 kilómetros. Hay estaciones de recarga a lo largo de la línea para reponer el hidrógeno. La máquina, con rendimiento comparable a los trenes diesel, es menos ruidosa que estos y libera solamente vapor de agua. El sistema incluye baterías capaces de almacenar la energía producida durante el frenado del tren.

Para sostener al proyecto, el gobierno federal de Baja Sajonia ha invertido 8,4 millones de euros en la producción de hidrógeno. Según Le Parisien, el gas debe obtenerse por electrólisis y mediante el uso de energía eólica.

https://www.linfodurable.fr/technomedias/allemagne-inauguration-du-premier-train-hydrogene-au-monde-6222
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Mensajepor Fermat » 02 Oct 2018 3:31 am

Ready-to-use recipe for turning plant waste into gasoline
KU Leuven, 24 Sep 2018

Bioscience engineers at KU Leuven already knew how to make gasoline in the laboratory from plant waste such as sawdust. Now the researchers have developed a roadmap, as it were, for industrial cellulose gasoline.

Imagen
Joris Snaet

In 2014, at KU Leuven’s Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, researchers succeeded in converting sawdust into building blocks for gasoline. A chemical process made it possible to convert the cellulose - the main component of plant fibres - in the sawdust into hydrocarbon chains. These hydrocarbons can be used as an additive in gasoline. The resulting cellulose gasoline is a second generation biofuel, explains Professor Bert Sels. “We start with plant waste and use a chemical process to make a product that is a perfect replica of its petrochemical counterpart. In the end product, you can only tell the difference between our product and fossil gasoline using carbon dating.”

For this type of bio-refining, the researchers built a chemical reactor in their lab, with which they can produce cellulose gasoline on a small scale. “But the question remained how the industry can integrate this and could produce it in large quantities. Our researcher, Aron Deneyer, has now investigated this. He examined in which section of the existing petroleum refining process the cellulose is best added to the petroleum to obtain a strongly bio-sourced gasoline. In other words, we now have a ready-to-use recipe for cellulose gasoline that the industry can apply directly: without loss of quality for the gasoline and making maximum use of existing installations.”

Cellulose gasoline must be seen as a transitional phase, Professor Sels emphasises. “The cellulose is still mixed with petroleum: this gasoline will never be sourced 100 per cent from renewable raw materials. Current consumption is too high to produce all gasoline from plant waste. However, our product does already offer the possibility of using greener gasoline while a large proportion of the vehicles on our roads still run on liquid fuel. In the future, we will remain dependent on liquid fuels, albeit to a lesser extent, and then they may indeed be fully bio-based. We suspect that the industry will show interest in this process.”

https://nieuws.kuleuven.be/en/content/2018/ready-to-use-recipe-for-turning-plant-waste-into-gasoline
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 06 Oct 2018 3:15 am

Emissions-free energy system saves heat from the summer sun for winter

Imagen
The energy system MOST works in a circular manner – completely free of emissions, and without damaging the molecules carrying the energy. ​ ​Illustration: Yen Strandqvist

​A research group from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has made great, rapid strides towards the development of a specially designed molecule which can store solar energy for later use. These advances have been presented in four scientific articles this year, with the most recent being published in the highly ranked journal Energy & Environmental Science.

Around a year ago, the research team presented a molecule that was capable of storing solar energy. The molecule, made from carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, has the unique property that when it is hit by sunlight, it is transformed into an energy-rich isomer – a molecule which consists of the same atoms, but bound together in a different way.

This isomer can then be stored for use when that energy is later needed – for example, at night or in winter. It is in a liquid form and is adapted for use in a solar energy system, which the researchers have named MOST (Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage). In just the last year, the research team have made great advances in the development of MOST.

“The energy in this isomer can now be stored for up to 18 years. And when we come to extract the energy and use it, we get a warmth increase which is greater than we dared hope for,” says the leader of the research team, Kasper Moth-Poulsen, in Nano Materials Chemistry at Chalmers.Professor Kasper Moth-Poulsen holding a tube containing the catalyst, in front of the ultra-high vacuum setup that was used to m

The research group have developed a catalyst for controlling the release of the stored energy. The catalyst acts as a filter, through which the liquid flows, creating a reaction which warms the liquid by 63 centigrades. If the liquid has a temperature of 20°Celsius when it pumps through the filter, it comes out the other side at 83°Celsius. At the same time, it returns the molecule to its original form, so that it can be then reused in the warming system.

During the same period, the researchers also learned to improve the design of the molecule to increase its storage abilities so that the isomer can store energy for up to 18 years. This was a crucial improvement, as the focus of the project is primarily chemical energy storage.


Furthermore, the system was previously reliant on the liquid being partly composed of the flammable chemical toluene. But now the researchers have found a way to remove the potentially dangerous toluene and instead use just the energy storing molecule.

Taken together, the advances mean that the energy system MOST now works in a circular manner. First, the liquid captures energy from sunlight, in a solar thermal collector on the roof of a building. Then it is stored at room temperature, leading to minimal energy losses. When the energy is needed, it can be drawn through the catalyst so that the liquid heats up. It is envisioned that this warmth can then be utilised in, for example, domestic heating systems, after which the liquid can be sent back up to the roof to collect more energy – all completely free of emissions, and without damaging the molecule.

“We have made many crucial advances recently, and today we have an emissions-free energy system which works all year around,” says Kasper Moth-Poulsen.

The solar thermal collector is a concave reflector with a pipe in the centre. It tracks the sun’s path across the sky and works in the same way as a satellite dish, focusing the sun’s rays to a point where the liquid leads through the pipe. It is even possible to add on an additional pipe with normal water to combine the system with conventional water heating.

The next steps for the researchers are to combine everything together into a coherent system.

“There is a lot left to do. We have just got the system to work. Now we need to ensure everything is optimally designed,” says Kasper Moth-Poulsen.

The group is satisfied with the storage capabilities, but more energy could be extracted, Kasper believes. He hopes that the research group will shortly achieve a temperature increase of at least 110°Celsius and thinks the technology could be in commercial use within 10 years.

More on: the advances behind the four scientific publications

The research group has published four scientific articles on their breakthroughs around the energy system during 2018.
1. Removing the need for toluene to be mixed with the molecule. Liquid Norbornadiene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage in the journal Advanced Energy Materials.
2. Increasing energy density and storage times. Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage in photoswitch oligomers increases energy densities and storage times in the journal Nature Communications.
3. Achieving energy storage of up to 18 years. Norbornadiene-based photoswitches with exceptional combination of solar spectrum match and long-term energy storage in Chemistry: A European Journal.
4. New record in how efficiently heating can be done. The liquid can increase 63C in temperature. Macroscopic Heat Release in a Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage System in the journal Energy and Environmental Science.

Page manager Published: Wed 03 Oct 2018. Modified: Wed 03 Oct 2018

https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Emissions-free-energy-system-saves-heat-from-the-summer-sun-for-winter-.aspx
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Mensajepor Fermat » 06 Oct 2018 3:43 am

Enzimas artificiales transforman energía solar en hidrógeno.
Universidad de Uppsala , 4 de octubre de 2018

Investigadores de la Universidad de Uppsala han creado a través de un método nuevo, una enzima artificial que trabaja en conjunto con células vivas. Estas enzimas pueden aprovechar la producción de energía de las mismas células y generar hidrógeno a partir de la energía solar.

El hidrógeno ha aparecido hace mucho como un prometedor almacén de energía, pero su producción aún depende de combustibles fósiles. El hidrógeno renovable puede extraerse del agua, pero los sistemas son limitados.

En un nuevo artículo publicado en el “Energy Research Journal, Energy and Environmental Science”, un equipo de investigación multidisciplinario europeo liderado por la Universidad de Uppsala describe cómo enzimas artificiales transforman la energía solar en hidrógeno.

El nuevo método ha sido desarrollado en la Universidad de Uppsala en los últimos años. La técnica se basa en microorganismos fotosintéticos con enzimas modificadas genéticamente combinadas con compuestos sintéticos producidos en el laboratorio.

Enzimas personalizadas
La biología sintética se ha combinado con química sintética para diseñar y crear enzimas artificiales personalizadas dentro de organismos vivos.

"Ahora hemos podido usar el método que desarrollamos para producir enzimas que usan la energía de la célula para producir hidrógeno", dice Adam Wegelius, estudiante de doctorado del de la Universidad de Uppsala.

"La evolución ha desarrollado y refinado una herramienta para capturar la luz solar a través de la fotosíntesis y al construir nuestra enzima artificial en cianobacterias fotosintéticas, podemos beneficiarnos directamente de este proceso eficiente, produciendo hidrógeno a partir de la energía solar.

"Hemos desarrollado un método completamente nuevo que nos permite ir más allá de las soluciones que ofrecen la evolución y la naturaleza en nuestro desarrollo de enzimas artificiales", dice Gustav Berggren, profesor asociado del mencionado instituto, quien dirigió la investigación junto con el profesor Peter Lindblad.

Artículo: Generation of a functional, semisynthetic [FeFe]-hydrogenase in a photosynthetic microorganism, Energy and Environmental Science

https://www.uu.se/nyheter-press/nyheter/artikel/?id=11412&area=2,5,10,16,34&typ=artikel&lang=sv
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 03 Nov 2018 5:36 am

Floating Wind Farms Off California Will Require New Tethering Technology
Steve Hanley , October 29th, 2018

Offshore wind farms have a big advantage over land-based installations. The wind out over the ocean tends to be stronger and more consistent than over land. It also tends to pick up near the end of the day just when electricity from solar farms is beginning to decrease. Last Friday, the Interior Department took the first steps toward leasing areas off the coast of California for deep water wind development. It will take a while for the process to be completed. The first wind turbines probably won’t begin producing electricity until 2024.

Imagen

The West Coast Is Different From The East Coast

Many east coast states are pursuing offshore wind, but there is an important difference. The Continental Shelf along the eastern seaboard is only a few hundred feet below the surface and extends many miles out to sea. That means the foundations for wind turbines can be sunk directly into the ocean floor.

In shallow waters, such as those off the coast of Block Island, Rhode Island, a single foundation tube is sunk directly into the sea bed. In deeper water, a foundation with three legs is often used. But at depths of 300 feet or more, a floating platform tethered to the bottom is necessary.

Things are quite different off the coast of California, where the land plunges to great depths just a short distance offshore. Only floating wind turbines will do in such conditions, which will require lots of new engineering solutions to keep the turbines stable even in severe weather. “They would be in much deeper water than anything that has been built in the world so far,” Karen Douglas, a member of the California Energy Commission, tells the New York Times.

The problem is exacerbated by the desire of the natives not to have to have the turbines spoil their pristine view of the Pacific Ocean. They can live with thousands of oil derricks scattered throughout southern California, millions of utility poles, billions of miles of wires, and the post-modern beauty of nuclear power plants, but Heaven forbid they should see a wind turbine blade spinning offshore! To avoid offending their tender sensibilities, the turbines will be located 15 to 20 miles offshore, mostly hidden from view behind the curvature of the Earth.

Proper Tethering Is Key To Offshore Wind
How to configure the tethering system for a deep water floating wind turbine is a challenge for engineers. HR Wallingford, a global civil engineering firm headquartered in the UK, is developing new tools to assess the forces floating wind turbine platforms will be subjected to in the real world, particularly as Category 5 typhoons become as common as thunderstorms in a warming world.

Working with Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory in the US, it has created a toolkit designers can use to configure the optimal platform tethering system for any location. The toolkit utilizes computational fluid dynamics based on Proteus open source software and multi-body dynamics using the Chrono open source solver. Here is a video that shows the toolkit in action.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLytZYS2V9g



Dr Aggelos Dimakopoulos, senior engineer at HR Wallingford, says, “We have put a special focus on the fully dynamic simulation of mooring cables, as they can significantly affect station‑keeping and the overall response of the device, which in turn affects its energy extraction efficiency.”

Michael Case, head of the renewable energy section, adds, “Using a CFD model at an early stage can reduce costs in design optimisation, by performing full-scale simulations under realistic sea states, before performing laboratory tests which may be subject to practical limitations. This is important as it provides a further opportunity to drive down the levelized cost of energy.”

Offshore wind farms will benefit from the fact that California already has a number of generating stations located along the Pacific Coast, so the cables bringing electricity ashore can connect to the grid through existing substations. Many of those existing power plants are scheduled to be shut down as California seeks to reach its goal of 100% renewable energy by 2045. One of the facilities scheduled for decomissioning is the nuclear power station at Diablo Canyon, the last functioning nuke in the state.

Three Coastal Areas Identified
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has identified three potential areas for leases — a parcel off Humboldt County in Northern California and two sites in the Morro Bay area on the central coast near Hearst Castle and Diablo Canyon.

Redwood Coast, a government-run utility serving 60,000 customers in the mostly rural area of Humboldt County, expects to spend about $500 million for the wind farm. “That level of generation would be a significant chunk of our energy load,” says Matthew Marshall, the utility’s executive director. “Offshore wind is really the big untapped resource.”

“California has very good offshore wind,” says Walt Musial, a principal engineer and manager of offshore wind efforts at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “If we look at the cost breakdown structures of a floating project or fixed-bottom project, they’re using a lot of the same components. There’s no big element that makes floating more expensive. In fact, there are some elements that might make floating cheaper,” he says.

Who Will Build Deep Water Offshore Wind Farms?
Three companies with offshore wind experience are expected to bid on the leases when they become available in about 18 months — Equinor, which used to be Statoil, the Norwegian state owned energy company, Trident Winds, and Magellan Wind, which is working with Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners. Trident winds envisions a 100-turbine installation west of Morro Bay.

Dan Reicher, a former Energy Department official who has been an adviser to Magellan, said he believed that California was starting one of its greatest initiatives in developing clean power. “In California, we’re not used to falling behind other states when it comes to renewable energy. That is the case when it comes to offshore wind. I think all of that will change with these floating systems,” he says.

Let The Review Process Begin!
The path forward will not be without its challenges. In addition to federal reviews, the wind projects must be approved by the California Coastal Commission for impact on federal and state waters, the California State Lands Commission, and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife because of concern about protected species.

“I would have some questions whether those cables would mean that whales would not use the area the same way as they have,” says Francine Kershaw, a marine mammal scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council. In general, the NRDC supports wind power, including offshore development, but Kershaw says “collisions with sea birds is probably the major concern.” There are also concerns about whales and other aquatic animals getting entangled in the cables bringing the electricity from offshore wind turbines to the mainland.

The review process will be long and torturous. But offshore wind will inevitably be a a crucial factor in meeting California’s renewable energy standard.

https://cleantechnica.com/2018/10/29/floating-wind-farms-off-california-will-require-new-tethering-technology/
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Re: Notas sobre Energías Renovables

Mensajepor Fermat » 19 Nov 2018 4:46 am

Purple bacteria can turn human waste into clean hydrogen energy

Researchgate 13th November 2018

The new method reduces carbon emissions and turns wastewater treatment plants into green generators.

A significant downside to wastewater treatment plants is their carbon footprint. Now, researchers have found a way to reduce carbon emissions from sewage and produce hydrogen energy at the same time. Their method uses purple bacteria and electrical currents to capitalize on the organic materials we flush down the toilet every day. We spoke with one of the study’s authors, Daniel Puyol of Spain’s King Juan Carlos University, to learn more.

ResearchGate: What are purple bacteria, and where do you find them in nature?
Daniel Puyol: Purple phototrophic bacteria belong to the biggest and most diverse group of bacteria. All of them are photosynthetic, but unlike plants and algae, they use infrared light as the energy source for their metabolism. This gives them a color from brown to red—including purple.

The main feature of these fascinating organisms is their versatile metabolism. They can perform a range of metabolic reactions, making them a kind of metabolic Swiss army knife. For this reason, these organisms are ubiquitous in nature. However, their preferred environment is in bodies of water, mainly lakes. They’re also frequently found in wastewater treatment plants, which gives us a clue about their applications.

RG: How did you get the idea to use them to harvest energy from our waste?
Puyol: While I was studying with Damien Batstone and Tim Hülsen, we used these organisms for wastewater treatment. We thought that we could tune their metabolism for something else. One of the possibilities is the production of hydrogen, which is a very energetic gas. We are currently exploring this option at the University Rey Juan Carlos.

RG: How do the bacteria produce hydrogen gas?
Puyol: All living beings have to maintain an equilibrium, which microbiologists and biotechnologists call homeostasis. Purple bacteria has the problem of excess electrons from their metabolism. One way of releasing this excess is through carbon dioxide fixation, like plants do. The other one is the release of electrons as hydrogen gas.

RG: Does it matter what’s in the waste?
Puyol: Yes, waste composition plays a key role on the ability of purple bacteria to produce hydrogen. The process is strongly inhibited in the presence of ammonium, which mainly comes from proteins in waste. We have to be completely sure that the ammonium is eliminated prior to the process, so a diet low in proteins would potentially help to produce more hydrogen more easily.

RG: How much energy can you harvest from poop?
Puyol: The main challenge in modern wastewater treatment plants is to go for energy neutrality, to maintain a treatment plant with no external energy. With the use of purple bacteria, we are trying to go beyond that, and transform the wastewater treatment plant into a real biorefinery. For a medium-size wastewater treatment plant, the direct transformation of organic contamination into hydrogen by purple bacteria could theoretically yield energy for 43-107 houses. Of course, most of this energy usually goes to the direct needs of the plant.

RG: What are you latest findings? Is someone putting them into practice?
Puyol: Our preliminary findings indicate that we are able to tune the metabolism of purple phototrophic bacteria to increase carbon dioxide fixation, while maintaining the same hydrogen productivity. This essentially means zero carbon footprint. We have recently obtained funding to design the process and patent the technology. With the technology demonstrated at lab-scale, we will try to convince the water sector about the feasibility of our technology. We have close contact with some water companies that would be interested.

RG: What is the ultimate goal for your research?
Puyol: We are ambitious, as we know that the possibilities around the use of purple phototrophic bacteria are wide. We are aiming to go beyond wastewater treatment, directly into bio-industry. We know that the only way of achieving success with a technology focused on resource recovery is the commercialization of these resources. So we are creating an atmosphere around purple bacteria technology, including bio-industries, water management companies, and waste management companies.

Resource recovery from waste and wastewater is nothing new. We are trying to do what nature has been being doing for millions of years. Nature, in its wisdom, has selected photosynthesis as a mechanism for these transformations. We are only accelerating them.

https://www.researchgate.net/blog/post/purple-bacteria-turn-human-waste-into-clean-hydrogen-energy
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